From the Summary: "The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 33.2 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The U.N. organization believes that in 2007, some 2.5 million people will contract HIV and it will kill about 2.1 million. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with about 68% of the world's HIV positive population, 90% of all HIV-infected children, and more than 11 million children who have lost one or both parents to the virus. UNAIDS anticipates that in 2007, about 420,000 children will contract HIV, due in large part to inadequate access to drugs that prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission; about 8% of pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries have access to PMTCT [prevention of mother-to-child transmission] services. […] On May 30, 2007, President Bush requested that Congress authorize $30 billion to fund PEPFAR [President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief] an additional five years. The President asserts that from FY2009 to FY2013, the plan would support treatment for 2.5 million people, prevent more than 12 million new infections, and care for more than 12 million people, including 5 million orphans and vulnerable children. Supporters of the Administration's plan applauded the President and congratulated him for leading global efforts to address HIV/AIDS. Critics asserted that PEPFAR could treat more than 2.5 million HIV infected people and that PEPFAR's spending requirements should be eliminated. This report focuses on some of the key issues that Congress might consider as it faces the issue of whether, and at what level, to reauthorize PEPFAR."
CRS Report for Congress, RL34192