"President Bush has proposed total research and development (R&D) funding of $147.0 billion in his FY2009 budget request to Congress, a $3.9 billion (2.7%) increase over the estimated FY2008 level of $143.1 billion. Five federal agencies would receive 92.8% of total federal R&D spending: the Department of Defense (54.8%), Department of Health and Human Services (20.1%), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (7.3%), Department of Energy (7.2%), and National Science Foundation (3.5%). The President's request includes $29.3 billion for basic research, up $847 million (3.0%) from FY2008; $27.1 billion for applied research, down $1.0 billion (-3.6%); $84.0 billion for development, up 1.6 billion (1.9%); and $6.5 billion for R&D facilities and equipment, up $2.5 billion (61.7%). Congress is to play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. A low or negative growth rate in the overall R&D investment may require movement of resources across disciplines, programs, or agencies to address priorities. […] For example, FY2008 R&D funding for some agencies and programs is below the level requested by the President and passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate. Completion of appropriations after the beginning of each fiscal year has also resulted in delays or cancellation of planned R&D and equipment acquisition. The House and the Senate have passed concurrent budget resolutions (H.Con.Res. 312 and S.Con.Res. 70, respectively). Differences remain to reconciled and approved by both chambers."
CRS Report for Congress, RL34448