From the Summary: "Sub-Saharan Africa ('Africa' hereafter) has been more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. In 2005, the United Nations reports, there were about 25.8 million HIV-positive adults and children in the region, which has about 11.3% of the world's population but over 64% of the worldwide total of infected persons. The overall adult rate of infection in Africa is 7.2%, compared with 1.1% worldwide. Nine southern Africa countries have infection rates above 10%. Ten African countries with the largest infected populations account for over 50% of infected adults worldwide. By the end of 2005, an estimated 27.5 million Africans had died of AIDS since 1982, including 2.4 million in 2005. AIDS has surpassed malaria as the leading cause of death in Africa, and it kills many times more Africans than war. In Africa, 57% of those infected are women. […] U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the epidemic's severity became apparent. Legislation enacted in the 106th and the 107th Congresses increased funding for worldwide AIDS programs. P.L. [Public Law] 108-25, signed into law on May 27, 2003, authorized $15 billion over five years for international AIDS programs. President Bush announced his Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in his 2003 State of the Union message. Twelve of 15 PEPFAR 'focus countries' are in Africa. Under the FY2007 budget request, the 12 countries would receive a 61% boost in AIDS-related aid, to $1.99 billion, under the State Department's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative account. Nonetheless, activists and others urge that more be done, given the scale of the African pandemic."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB10050