"On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would 'work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India' and would 'also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies,' in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. Administration officials have promoted nuclear cooperation with India as a way to reduce India's carbon dioxide emissions and its dependence on oil, bring India into the 'nonproliferation mainstream' and create jobs for U.S. industry. India, which has not signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and does not have International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all nuclear material in peaceful nuclear activities, exploded a 'peaceful' nuclear device in 1974, convincing the world of the need for greater restrictions on nuclear trade. The United States created the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as a direct response to India's test, halted nuclear exports to India a few years later, and worked to convince other states to do the same. India tested nuclear weapons again in 1998. […] The Senate bill contains implementing legislation for the U.S. Additional Protocol, which reportedly is controversial for some Members. Negotiations between U.S. and Indian officials are proceeding slowly on the text of a cooperation agreement as are negotiations between IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] and Indian officials on a safeguards agreement. The NSG has not yet decided to take a decision and appears to be awaiting action by the U.S. Congress. This report will be updated as necessary."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33016