Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy [September 27, 2004] [open pdf - 104KB]
"Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes. […] Meanwhile, the ongoing crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 1.2 million people displaced and more that 200,000 people forced into neighboring Chad. While there are no reliable estimates of the number of people killed as a result of the conflict, some observers project that up to 50,000 people have been killed over the past 18 months. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) officials assert that an estimated 320,000 could die by the end of 2004, irrespective of the international response. In July 2004, the House and Senate declared the atrocities in Darfur genocide, and the Bush Administration reached the same conclusion in September 2004. Relations between the United States and Sudan are poor in part because of Khartoum's human rights violations, its war policy in the south, and its support for international terrorism, although in recent months relations have improved somewhat. In November 1997, the Clinton Administration imposed comprehensive sanctions on the NIF [National Islamic Front] government. President Bush has renewed the sanctions since he came to office in 2001."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB98043