This document from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJJDP] and the Bureau of Justice Assistance examines the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model, street outreach in the model, the roles and responsibilities of outreach workers, and more. "Since the early 19th century and the emergence of street gangs within urban population centers of the United States, community members have sought to reach out to these disenfranchised and criminally involved youth to reengage and redirect them to more pro-social activities. Over the years, these efforts have yielded mixed results. For instance, the detached gang worker programs of the 1950s and '60s, while well-intentioned, delivered almost uniformly flat results and may actually have increased the cohesion of the gangs they served, thus accelerating gang offending […]. It seems intuitive that social intervention directed at gang members is necessary and vital as a response to gang violence. However, programmatic results, when these programs have been evaluated, suggest that street-level outreach, by itself, is not sufficient to create a reduction in gang-related crime."
National Gang Center Bulletin No. 7
2012 Institute of Intergovernmental Research
National Gang Center: http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/