"This research focuses on dynamics at the sub-national level, where extraction takes place and where much conflict occurs over adverse social and environmental effects of extraction and over compensation for those effects. The report seeks to explain the following variation between the mining and hydrocarbons sectors: government energy and mining ministries have tended to play a central role in seeking to resolve mining conflict as a means of supporting production. In contrast, when it comes to hydrocarbons, significant conflict and resolution usually involve direct negotiations between companies and social actors without a role for the central government. The report proposes that we focus on two factors to try to explain this variation: (1) the differing structural aspects of the sectors, specifically, the sprawling nature of hydrocarbon infrastructure and the more localized nature of mining projects; and (2) the involvement of national security forces to protect extraction--that is, whether the national police or the armed forces provide security." Note: This document has been added to the Homeland Security Digital Library in agreement with the Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering WMD (PASCC) as part of the PASCC collection. Permission to download and/or retrieve this resource has been obtained through PASCC.
Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering, PASCC Report No. 2012 004
Public Domain. Downloaded or retrieved via external web link as part of the PASCC collection.
Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Center for Contemporary Conflict: http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Centers/CCC/