From the thesis abstract: "On September 11, 2001 a relatively obscure Islamic organization, executed an attack against the United States with catastrophic effects. Most of the United States, as well as the world, could not fathom how a single organization could conceive, coordinate and execute such a devastating attack against the world's last remaining superpower. This paper argues that the attacks by Osama Bin Laden and al Qaeda were the result or reflect a failure to follow the National Security Strategies developed in the 1990s. The attacks were a result of a failure to recognize the rise of violent, non-state actors and engaging this phenomenon at the proper place and time. It will further argue that active Engagement by the whole of the United States Government, specifically the U.S. military, is the strategy for the future. This paper will examine the policy of engagement by the United States Government prior to 9/11, Osama Bin Laden's engagement activities during the 1990s leading up to the attacks on September 11, 2001 and a review of strategies proposed after 9/11 and offer a course for future strategic direction."
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/