Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series: Integrated Rapid Visual Screening of Tunnels [open pdf - 15MB]
"DHS [Department of Homeland Security] has sponsored the development of a methodology for assessing the risk and resilience of tunnels to terrorist attacks and selected natural hazards. The methodology, referred to as the integrated rapid visual screening (IRVS) for tunnels, was developed by the DHS Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division, in partnership with the public and private-sector stakeholders involved in the design, operation, and management of critical infrastructure. The result of an IRVS of tunnels is a quantifiable assessment of the risk of a given tunnel to a terrorist attack or natural disaster that leads to catastrophic losses (fatalities, injuries, damage, or business interruption) and a quantifiable assessment of the resiliency of the tunnel (ability to recovery from such an event). […] The primary purpose of the IRVS of tunnels is to rank the risk in a group of tunnels in a transportation system or region. The results of an IRVS can also be used in infrastructure-specific risk assessments and higher level assessments of threats, consequences, and vulnerabilities. This document is the manual for conducting an IRVS of tunnels and provides guidance in rating a tunnel's potential risk of and resiliency to terrorist attacks and selected natural disasters (fire and flooding)."
Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series, BIPS 03/March 2011
United States. Dept. of Homeland Security: http://www.dhs.gov/