"The U.S. military has embraced the increased utilization of space that is reflected in the 2010 National Space Policy in order to more efficiently engage in decisive operations while minimizing collateral damage. 'Virtually every Army operation relies on space capabilities to some degree to enhance the effectiveness of our combat forces. Space capabilities enable the Army to communicate, navigate, target the enemy, and protect forces.' The Army responded to this increased reliance on space by creating a career field of space operations officers--functional area 40--in 1997. Army space operations officers provide incident commanders with staff expertise necessary to fully exploit the space component of communications, precision engagement, geospatial intelligence, environmental effects on satellite communications, and overhead persistent infrared imaging capabilities. The National Guard has benefitted from the addition of space operations officers to our force. Today there are approximately 135 space operations officers and enlisted space enablers in 25 states integrated throughout the Army National Guard. Several of these officers are incorporated into staffs of fires brigades and divisions, however roughly 85 percent of these space professionals are located in the 117th Space Battalion, Colorado Army National Guard."
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/
Army Space Journal (Fall/Winter 2011)