Report to the Atomic Energy Commission by the Ad Hoc Advisory Panel on Safeguarding Special Nuclear Material [open pdf - 5MB]
"With the inception of the nuclear age, the foreign policy of the United States crystallized on the objective of limiting the number of nuclear powers. The Baruch Plan to control nuclear weapons and to assure that special nuclear materials would be used principally for peaceful purposes was submitted to the United Nations In 1946, though it was never adopted. The Atoms for Peace Program was conditioned on, and recognized the need for, assurances that the materials transferred under the program would not be diverted to military pursuits. The incorporation of safeguards requirements In bilateral agreements for cooperation, and the systematic transfer by the United States of its bilateral safeguards responsibilities to the International Atomic Energy Agency is consistent with this objective. The United States ratification of the Moscow Treaty of 1963 the so-called 'Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,' was the lineal descendant of this policy objective. Thus it has been, and continues to be, a basic foreign policy objective of the United States to strictly limit the proliferation of nations with nuclear weapons capability."
United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information: http://www.osti.gov/