Engineering Principles and Practices for Retrofitting Flood-Prone Residential Structures (Third Edition)   [open pdf - 56MB]

"This manual has been prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with assistance from other groups to assist local governments, engineers, architects, and property owners involved in planning and implementing residential flood retrofitting projects. Its objective is to provide engineering design and economic guidance to engineers, architects, and local code officials about what constitutes technically feasible and cost-effective retrofitting measures for flood-prone residential structures. The focus of this manual is the retrofitting of one- to four-family residences subject to flooding situations without wave action. The manual presents various retrofitting measures that provide both active and passive efforts and employ both dry and wet floodproofing measures. These include elevation of the structure in place, relocation of the structure, construction of barriers (floodwalls and levees), dry floodproofing (sealants, closures, sump pumps, and backflow valves), and wet floodproofing (flood damage-resistant materials and protection of utilities and contents). The goal of this manual is to capture state-of-the-art information and present it in an organized manner. To the maximum extent possible, existing data and current standards have been utilized as the cornerstone of this document. Detailed sections covering the evaluation, planning, and design of retrofitting measures are included along with case studies of completed retrofitting efforts. Methods for performing economic analyses of the various alternatives are presented."

Report Number:
FEMA P-259
Public Domain
Retrieved From:
Federal Emergency Managment Agency: http://www.fema.gov/
Media Type:
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