"Technological advancement, financial incentives, and policy concerns have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy, in particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land. However multiple offshore projects have been proposed and are at various stages of the federal permitting process. The United States has the authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal states each have roles in the permitting process, the extents of which depend on whether the project is located in state or federal waters."
CRS Report for Congress, R40175
National Agricultural Law Center: http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/crs/