"Several firefighters and Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers are killed and many are injured each year by vehicles striking them while performing emergency functions at roadway incidents. The main problem is that in some departments, formal training and procedures do not exist for establishing warning devices and managing vehicle traffic as it approaches the incident scene. The purpose of this research is to review literature available on roadway safety, survey fire departments for current procedures, and develop a training lesson plan. This research project used both evaluative and action research to answer the following questions: Is there a universal way to establish a roadway incident scene? What safety procedures by members must be reinforced? What are the guidelines for setting out cones and flares? What other warning devices are being used by fire departments? The procedures to collect data included a literature review and a survey instrument. The survey was used to determine if the departments were (1) following a written Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) or had developed lesson plans on roadway safety, (2) what type of training was conducted, and (3) what types of warning devices are used. The results of the research produced a method to develop a Traffic Control Zone, that may be used on any type roadway incident and safe crew activities that should be reinforced with training and exercises. The recommendations are that all fire service organizations should develop a training lesson on roadway safety and establish a SOP. Departments that do not have enhanced warning devices or equipment such as reflective florescent vests, lighted arrow boards vests, light-wand flashlights, or apparatus reflective stripping should evaluate this equipment for inclusion in their apparatus inventory."
United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Learning Resource Center: http://www.lrc.fema.gov/