Paid-On-Call Fire Department Staffing Strategies to Meet the Provisions of the OSHA 2in/2out Rule   [open pdf - 272KB]

"Nationally mandated operational requirements of the modern fire service have challenged the ability of the paid-on-call fire department to effectively and adequately staff for emergencies. One such challenge for the Plymouth Fire Department is providing the required staffing to meet the intent of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134), paragraph (g) (4) "Procedures for Interior Structural Firefighting," specifically, the requirement for two stand-by personnel and two fire suppression personnel on-scene prior to the commencement of fire suppression activities (2In/2Out). The purpose of this research was to identify staffing and operational strategies that paid-on-call departments may employ to provide adequate staffing to comply with the requirements of the 2In/2Out standard. The research employed historical and descriptive analysis, supported by evaluative research methodology. The following research questions were presented: 1. What staffing strategies may be implemented by paid-on-call departments to comply with the 2In/2Out provisions? 2. What is the expected impact of the 2In/2Out standard upon the paid-on-call fire department? 3. Did OSHA clearly define the requirements of the 2In/2Out standard?"

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United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Learning Resource Center: http://www.lrc.fema.gov/
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