Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement [Updated April 15, 2008] [open pdf - 173KB]
"Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes. There were many failed attempts to end the civil war in southern Sudan, including efforts by Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, former President Jimmy Carter, and the United States. In July 2002, the Sudan government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed a peace framework agreement in Kenya. On May 26, 2004, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed three protocols on Power Sharing, on the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, and on the long disputed Abyei area. The signing of these protocols resolved all outstanding issues between the parties. On June 5, 2004, the parties signed 'the Nairobi Declaration on the Final Phase of Peace in the Sudan.' On January 9, 2005, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed the final peace agreement at a ceremony held in Nairobi, Kenya. In October 2007, the government of Southern Sudan suspended the participation of its Ministers, State Ministers, and Presidential Advisors from the Government of National Unity to protest measures taken by the National Congress Party and to demand full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). In response to these demands and unexpected developments, President Bashir reportedly accepted a number of the government of South Sudan (GoSS) demands in late October, except those related to the Abyei issue."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33574