U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress [Updated February 12, 2008] [open pdf - 223KB]
"On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would 'work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India' and would 'also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies,' in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. India, which has not signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and does not have International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all nuclear material in peaceful nuclear activities, exploded a 'peaceful' nuclear device in 1974, convincing the world of the need for greater restrictions on nuclear trade. The United States created the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as a direct response to India's test, halted nuclear exports to India a few years later, and worked to convince other states to do the same. India tested nuclear weapons again in 1998. […] The Senate approved the conference report by unanimous consent early on December 9, and President Bush signed the bill into law (P.L. 109-401) on December 18, 2006. The law requires that the following, among other things, must occur before nuclear cooperation can proceed: submission of a finalized text of a cooperation agreement to Congress, approval of an IAEA safeguards agreement by the IAEA Board of Governors, consensus agreement within the NSG to make an exception for India, and passage of a joint resolution of approval of the agreement by the Congress. India and the United States reached agreement in July 2007 on the text of a nuclear cooperation agreement, and New Delhi has been conducting discussions with the International Atomic Energy Agency since this past November."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33016