Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways Context, Threats, Challenges, and Solutions [open pdf - 24MB]
"Until very recently, naval mines and UWIEDs [under water improvised explosive devices], if included in domestic maritime threat assessments at all, have usually been relegated to the status of a 'lesser included' problem. If we can deal, it is argued, with what planners believe are the more likely maritime threats, especially vessel-borne devices, we can certainly handle mines and underwater IEDs. But the history of naval and terrorist mining since 1945 challenges this assumption, and the stakes are high if it turns out to be wrong. Indeed, the assessments and planning that have focused on the M/UWIED threat underscore critical weaknesses in how federal, regional, state, and local actors charged with ensuring America's maritime security, as well as private entities whose assets are at risk, must respond to weapons that can easily be deployed in U.S. ports and waterways."
2008 Naval War College Review
Naval War College Review (Winter 2008), v.61 no.1, p.106-127