Export Controls: Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Technologies   [open pdf - 142KB]

"In December 1995, in The Hague suburb of Wassenaar, the United States and its allies and former adversaries, including Russia, agreed to establish an export control arrangement to deal with post- Cold War security risks arising from transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies. The objective is to promote greater transparency and responsibility and as well as restraint in such transfers. At their Dec. 13, 1996 meeting the 33 member states of the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) noted that they have now begun work on the basis of the Ainitial elements,' the WA's principles and procedures, which were agreed to in July. Although WA members have national policies against selling arms or sensitive dual-use items for military end-uses in 'states of serious concern,' key members oppose measures that would diminish their freedom of action. Thus the WA does not formally identify the 'states of serious concern' (Iran, Iraq, North Korea and Libya). Furthermore, the requirements to exchange information on transfers to non-members are limited in scope and timeliness. Most importantly, the WA failed to secure agreement on notification prior to transferring arms to regions of instability (Middle East and South Asia) or on disclosure of dual-use transfers to purported civilian end-users in states of concern. Thus, the WA lacks the tools needed to meaningfully implement its objectives."

Report Number:
Strategic Forum No. 100
Public Domain
Retrieved From:
National Defense University, Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction: http://www.ndu.edu/WMDCenter/
Media Type:
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