"This paper reviews the civil defense (CD) debate as it has been reflected since 1976 in studies, Congressional Hearings, DoD reports, journals, and other open sources (no significant facts, policies or views are classified). The paper reviews in some detail the debate on the relationship of CD to the strategic balance, and outlines the Executive Branch studies on U.S. and Soviet CD that led to Presidential Decision 41. PD 41 makes it clear that CD is a factor to be taken into account in assessing the strategic balance: The U.S. program is to 'enhance deterrence and stability,' and to 'reduce the possibility that the Soviets could coerce us' in a crisis. The paper also assesses programs that could give effect to the PD 41 policies, and concludes that a program of the type recommended by the Secretary of Defense (averaging $230M annually for FY's 1980-1984) could implement these policies, whereas a program at the $100 or $110M level cannot. This paper outlines civil defense issues, the current status of U.S. civil defense (CD)l/ and options for the future, as of the time when responsibility for CD is being transferred from the Secretary of Defense to the Director of FEMA. The paper outlines the issues informally and as plainly and candidly as possible. There are essentially no facts, policies, views, or opinions bearing on CD issues that are classified-a11 that are of any consequence are in the public record, and the principal sources are cited in footnotes to this paper."
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute: http://www.training.fema.gov/