Project BioShield: Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Policy Implementation Issues for Congress [Updated June 11, 2007]   [open pdf - 210KB]

"The Project BioShield Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-276) established a 10-year program to acquire civilian medical countermeasures to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) agents for the Strategic National Stockpile. Provisions of this act were designed to encourage private companies to develop these countermeasures by guaranteeing a government market for successfully developed countermeasures. […] Both the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and HHS have responsibilities in this program. Funds for this program are appropriated to DHS, while contracts are executed through HHS. The interagency process responsible for deciding which countermeasures to procure has changed multiple times since this program's inception. The Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2004 (P.L. 108-90) provided an advance appropriation of $5.6 billion to acquire CBRN countermeasures over a 10- year period (FY2004-FY2013). […] HHS has awarded Project BioShield contracts for countermeasures against anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and radiological or nuclear agents. These awards total approximately $2.331 billion. However, the largest contract, $878 million for an anthrax vaccine, was cancelled in December 2006 for failure to meet a contract milestone. Taking this into account, approximately $1.889 billion remains available for obligation through FY2008 and $4.064 billion available for obligation through the end of the program in FY2013. […] This report discusses actions taken by Congress and the Administration that have affected this program, describes the decision-making process for choosing countermeasures, describes the countermeasures for which the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has contracted, and discusses accounting discrepancies in Project BioShield budget documents."

Report Number:
CRS Report for Congress, RL33907
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