"The Bush Administration has requested $142.7 billion in federal research and development (R&D) funding for FY2008.As in the recent past, the FY2008 proposed increase over the FY2007 funding level is due to significant funding increases in the Department of Defense (DOD); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space vehicles development program; and the continuation of the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI). The President initiated the ACI in FY2007 and continues to promote it in his FY2008 R&D budget. While the ACI is likely to be well received by lawmakers, other administration proposals for agency R&D funding are likely to encounter strong opposition in Congress. For example, the administration's proposed budget for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is $28.5 billion, a decrease of $529 million (1.8%) below the estimated 2007 funding level. This proposed level represents the fifth year in a row the administration has proposed cutting NIH's budget. While NASA's R&D budget would increase in FY2008, the entire increase is designated for two major initiatives: finishing the international space station and developing the crew launch vehicle/crew exploration vehicle combination. However, as a result of these priorities, funding for NASA's basic and applied research programs has declined 18% since FY2006. Funding for the Department of Defense is proposed to increase by $765 million to $79 billion in FY2008. DOD's weapons development program would increase to an all time high of $68.1 billion."
CRS Report for Congress, RL34048