"The Office of Civil Defense has developed a substantial lifesaving capability; however, certain unresolved issues hamper meeting current civil defense objectives. Also a number of important events, such as the acquisition of a nuclear capability by other nations, have occurred in recent years and have significantly affected civil defense planning. The principal goal of the current civil defense program- the development of a nationwide fallout shelter system- is complemented by related program elements, such as warning and detection. There are, however, no programs (other than research) aimed at protecting people against chemical or biological weapons or the direct effects of nuclear explosions, such as blast, heat, and shock. According to the Department of Defense (DoD), present fallout shelters would save 18 million to 30 million lives which would otherwise be lost in the event of a nuclear attack. Alternative combinations of additional fallout and blast protection, ranging in cost from $400 million to $8 billion for fiscal years 1970 to 1975, could save additional millions of lives. Although appropriations for military defense as a whole have increased over recent years, appropriations for civil defense have decreased."