"The organizational structure of Chinese organized crime in the United States is quite complex. Broadly defined, there is a great variety of Chinese criminal organizations. These include gangs, secret societies, triads, tongs, Taiwanese organized crime groups, and strictly US-based tongs and gangs. According to Kolin Chin, the foremost academic expert in the U.S. on Chinese organized crime, there is no empirical support for the belief that there is a well-organized, monolithic, hierarchical criminal cartel called the 'Chinese Mafia.' Chin says: 'My findings...do not support the notion that a chain of command exists among these various crime groups or that they coordinate with one another routinely in international crimes such as heroin trafficking, money laundering, and the smuggling of aliens' (1996:123). In order to simplify and focus our discussion, this analysis will concentrate on the Fuk Ching gang. The Fuk Ching are active in New York City, and are regarded as one of the most powerful, and also transnationally active, Chinese organized crime groups in the U.S. (Chin, 1996). They are estimated to have approximately 35 members, with another 20 members currently in prison. Other major gangs in New York City include the Ghost Shadows, Flying Dragons, Tung On, and Bornto- Kill. The New York City gangs, like the Fuk Ching, mainly operate extortion and protection rackets in defined neighborhoods in New York's Chinatown. Their victims are mostly businesses in Chinatown. In California, the Chinese organized crime presence and problem is quite different from that in New York. In California, the dominant groups are the Wo Hop To and the Wah Ching."