Homeland Security Proposals: Issues Regarding Transfer of Immigration Agencies and Functions [Updated February 3, 2003] [open pdf - 103KB]
"As the 107th Congress considered the broader question of homeland security and the creation of a Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the issue of where to locate the various immigration and citizenship functions performed by the Department of Justice's (DOJ) Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and the Department of State's (DOS) Bureau of Consular Affairs posed a distinct set of questions. Congress weighed what immigration functions constituted border security, what were homeland security, and whether those immigration functions that may not have homeland security-related roles should be transferred to the proposed DHS. The debate centered on several options: place all of INS in a newly created DHS under a Border Security and Transportation Division; place INS's enforcement functions in DHS under the Border Security and Transportation Division but leave INS's service function in DOJ under a newly created Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services; place all of INS in DHS in its own Directorate of Immigration Affairs, which would have two separate bureaus for the enforcement and service functions; or place INS's enforcement functions in a DHS Bureau of Border Security and INS's service functions in a DHS Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services - the choice eventually enacted. In addition to the transfer of INS, there had been considerable debate over whether the issuances of visas should remain with the DOS."
CRS Report for Congress, RL31560