"A well-managed border is central to maintaining and improving the security of the United States against terrorist threats. Border security entails regulating the flow of goods and people across the nation's borders so that dangerous and unwanted goods or people are denied entry. Transportation security entails screening and protecting people and goods as they move between different locations within the country. The overall appropriations over the past three years for Border and Transportation Security, as defined in this report, are as follows: in FY2004, Congress appropriated $18,106 million; in FY2005, Congress appropriated $20,313 million; in FY2006, the President requested $19,586 million; House-passed H.R. 2360 provides $21,015 million; and Senate-passed H.R. 2360 provides $21,283 million […] Within the federal government, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been given primary responsibility for securing the nation's borders and for increasing the security of transportation, among other responsibilities. The locus of border and transportation security activity within DHS is in the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security, which houses the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). The U.S. Coast Guard is a standalone agency within DHS but plays an important role in border and transportation security, as does the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC). This report includes appropriations for the functions and agencies of BTS, the U.S. Coast Guard and FLETC. Major issues include the number of available detention beds and investigators at ICE; the number of Border Patrol agents in CBP; the appropriate level of funding for the Deepwater program within the Coast Guard; and non-aviation security spending within TSA."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33049