Biowarfare Lessons, Emerging Biosecurity Issues, and Ways to Monitor Dual-Use Biotechnology Trends in the Future [open pdf - 242KB]
Alternate Title: INSS Occasional Paper 61
"The study summarizes policy lessons for future efforts to monitor possible covert biological warfare programs based on recent investigations of past Iraqi and South African covert biowarfare programs. This comparative case study approach identified several commonalities in past biowarfare programs in developing countries. One was a tendency of governments to recruit some of the brightest graduate students studying in several different fields of science and send them abroad for advanced studies at western universities. This trend changed dramatically after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, and it is now much more likely that future scientists working for government-sponsored bioweapons programs or for terrorist groups in the developing world will receive their advanced training at nonwestern institutions in Asia, Africa, and Latin America."
United States Air Force Academy: http://www.usafa.af.mil