From the Summary: "U.S.-China relations, remarkably smooth from 2001-2004, became more problematic again in the 109th Congress. U.S. policy toward China appeared to be subject to competing reassessments. State Department officials in 2005 unveiled what they said was a new policy framework for the relationship - one in which the United States was willing to work cooperatively with a non-democratic China while encouraging Beijing to become a 'responsible stakeholder' in the global system. Other U.S. policymakers appear to adopt tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential PRC diplomacy in the international arena. Taiwan, which China considers a 'renegade province,' remained the most sensitive issue the two countries face and the one many observers fear could lead to Sino-U.S. conflict. […] Another matter of growing U.S. concern was China's increasing global "reach" and the consequences that the PRC's expanding its international influence have for U.S. interests. To feed its appetite for resources, China during 2005-2006 steadily signed trade agreements, oil and gas contracts, scientific cooperation agreements, and multilateral security arrangements with countries around the world, some of which are key U.S. allies. Some U.S. observers viewed these activities as a threat to the United States. Even if simply the natural outcome of China's economic development, these and other PRC activities appeared to pose critical future challenges for U.S. economic and political interests."
CRS Report for Congress, RL32804
Congressional Research Service: https://crsreports.congress.gov/