China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers Under U.S. Satellite Export Policy -Actions and Chronology [Updated October 6, 2003]   [open pdf - 284KB]

"Congress has been concerned about whether U.S. firms, in activities connected with exporting satellites, provided expertise to China for use in its ballistic missile and space programs and whether U.S. policy has facilitated transfers of military-related technology to China. This CRS Report discusses security concerns, policy changes, congressional action, and a chronology of major developments since 1988 under President Reagan. It is updated as warranted. […] A range of concerns were prompted by New York Times reports in April 1998 that the Justice Department began a criminal investigation into whether Loral Space and Communications Ltd. and Hughes Electronics Corp. violated export control laws. […] At least three classified studies reportedly found that U.S. national security was harmed. Congress and the Executive Branch also investigated Hughes' review of China's launch failure of January 1995. […] In 1998, Congress passed the FY1999 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 105-261) that transferred licensing authority over satellites back to the State Department (effective March 15, 1999). On December 30, 1998, the Cox Committee unanimously approved a classified report said to conclude that China's technology acquisitions over the past 20 years, not only that associated with satellite launches, harmed U.S. national security. […] Legislation for State Department appropriations for FY2004 (H.R. 2799 and S. 1585) would continue to require State to notify the Committees on Appropriations at least 15 days in advance of obligating or expending funds for processing licenses to export U.S.-origin satellites to China."

Report Number:
CRS Report for Congress, 98-485
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