Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy [Updated December 22, 2006] [open pdf - 152KB]
"The signing of the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement effectively ended the 21-year old North- South civil war and triggered a six-year Interim Period. Meanwhile, another ongoing crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2 million people displaced, more than 234,000 people forced into neighboring Chad, and an estimated 450,000 people killed. In July 2004, the House and Senate declared the atrocities in Darfur genocide, and the Bush Administration reached the same conclusion in September 2004. On May 4, 2006, the Government of National Unity and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) signed the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) after almost two years of negotiations. The agreement was rejected by two other Darfur groups: the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and a splinter group from the SLM. The agreement calls for the integration of SLA troops into the Sudan Armed Forces, provides $300 million initially and $200 million for the next two years for reconstruction and compensation purposes for Darfur, and establishes the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA). In August 2006, the U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 1706, authorizing the deployment of a robust peacekeeping force to Darfur. Sudanese President Omar Bashir rejected the deployment of a United Nations force. In December, the Security Council issued a Presidential Statement effectively abandoning resolution 1706. The proposed new force will continue to have a predominantly African charter and would be led by the African Union and an African Force Commander."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33574