U.S. Nuclear Cooperation With India: Issues for Congress [Updated December 22, 2006] [open pdf - 205KB]
From the Summary: "On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would 'work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India' and would 'also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies,' in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. Administration officials have promoted nuclear cooperation with India as a way to reduce India's carbon dioxide emissions and its dependence on oil, bring India into the 'nonproliferation mainstream' and create jobs for U.S. industry. Nonproliferation experts have argued that the potential costs of nuclear cooperation with India to U.S. and global nonproliferation policy may far exceed the benefits. At a time when the United States has called for all states to strengthen their domestic export control laws and for tighter multilateral controls, U.S. nuclear cooperation with India would require loosening its own nuclear export legislation, as well as creating a NSG exception. This is at odds with nearly three decades of U.S. nonproliferation policy and practice. Some believe the proposed agreement undercuts the basic bargain of the NPT, could undermine hard-won restrictions on nuclear supply, and could prompt some suppliers, like China, to justify supplying other states outside the NPT regime, like Pakistan. Others contend that allowing India access to the international uranium market will free up its domestic uranium sources to make more nuclear weapons."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33016