"An assessment of combined intelligence operations in war and peace from 1941-1984. US and allied perspectives. Common problems occur and recur, but no improvement in the learning curve. Where successful, combined intelligence operations have had three elements; a mutual need, a combined organization, and a strong-willed, supportive commander. To improve the learning curve and plan and execute combined intelligence operations more effectively requires a firm commitment from the Pentagon. A commitment that coalition defense is important and more cost-effective, and that collective security should be based on balanced collective forces, rather than individually balanced national forces. Several recommendations are provided to improve combined intelligence planning and execution now and into the 21st century."