Funding for Military and Peacekeeping Operations: Recent History and Precedents [November 7, 2003] [open pdf - 40KB]
"Congress recently completed action on the Bush Administration's FY2004 supplemental budget request to fund continuing military operations and reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was signed into law, P.L. 108-106, on November 6, 2003. A major issue in the congressional debate on this, and other such supplementals of the past, is whether military and peacekeeping operations should be funded with supplemental requests or via the regular defense appropriations process. Some Members of Congress have urged the President to include the costs of current and future operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in the Department of Defense's (DOD's) regular appropriations, arguing that these are now ongoing operations that should be planned for and funded in the annual defense budget. Others prefer supplementals due to the unpredictability of military and peacekeeping circumstances in Iraq and Afghanistan. This unpredictability, they argue, makes it extremely difficult to estimate the costs of either type of operation in advance."
CRS Report for Congress, RL32141