Weapons of Mass Destruction: Civil Support Team Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures [open pdf - 3MB]
"In recent decades, the US has dealt with a series of asymmetric threats whose potential for lethality and political, economic, and psychological impact has increased over time. The most recent of these threats include terrorist bombings in New York City and Oklahoma City during the 1990s and the catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center and significant damage to the Pentagon on 11 September 2001. The use of biological agents (such as anthrax) by terrorists also caused civilian casualties and contamination of US infrastructure (such as US mail distribution centers) in 2001. An adversary may not hesitate to use CBRNE or toxic industrial material (TIM) on a covert or overt basis to accomplish its objectives. Information technology and CBRNE materials have proliferated in recent years, making them more accessible to potential adversaries. The evolving threat has required that leaders and planners conduct assessments (during deliberate and crisis action planning) that analyze the impact of CBRNE on various courses of action (COAs) and the security of the US homeland. Based on the threat, the USG has undertaken measures to improve our nation's ability to respond to domestic and international-based terrorism. In June 1995, Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 39, 'US Policy on Terrorism', delineated the responsibilities for federal agencies in combating terrorism, including domestic incidents. PDD 62, 'Combating Terrorism', issued in May 1998, further defined responsibilities for specific agencies. Both directives call for the establishment of robust, tailored, and rapidly deployable interagency teams that can conduct well-coordinated and highly integrated operations in response to the crisis generated by a terrorist attack (referred to as crisis management) and cope with the consequences that follow (consequence management [CM])."