"An analytic approach for traffic safety injury epidemiology and prevention was developed by Dr. William Haddon, Jr. in the 1960s, and has since been termed 'the Haddon matrix.' This matrix provides a multidimensional approach to understanding the contributing factors to injury before, during, and after an event. Although the Haddon matrix may seem unfamiliar to some infectious disease scientists, it incorporates familiar analytic elements in a systematic way. The four columns represent the classical epidemiologic triad of host, agent, and environment (physical and sociocultural). The three rows are equivalent to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of disease outbreaks. Indeed, Haddon himself used his analytic matrix to describe an outbreak of polio, and this matrix has been recently applied to other public-health emergency preparedness challenges such as SARS. Comprehensive public health emergency preparedness and response efforts require effective pre-event (preventive), event (mitigation), and post-event (consequence management) strategies. By identifying the factors that may modify the outcome in each of these phases, one can prescribe the appropriate measures necessary to tackle each factor. To this end, we specifically applied the Haddon matrix to pandemic influenza planning and response, systematically identifying relevant factors in each phase (pre-event, event, post-event) and on each axis (human, agent/vector, physical environment, sociocultural environment). We then identified factors that may be associated with opportunities for public health intervention, and marked these factors in bold within the matrix."
2005 Barnett et al. Open-access article under terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction provided article properly cited.
PLoS Medicine: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/
PLoS Medicine (December 2005). V. 2, No. 12, p. 1235-1241, e359.