Emergency Preparedness and Response: Some Issues and Challenges Associated with Major Emergency Incidents, Statement of William O. Jenkins, Jr., Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues, Testimony before the Little Hoover Commission, State of California [open pdf - 149KB]
"Prior to September 11, 2001, emergency preparedness and response had primarily been the responsibility of state and local governments and had focused principally on emergencies resulting from nature, such as fires, floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes, or accidental acts of man, not acts of terrorism. The federal governments role in supporting emergency preparedness and management prior to September 11 was limited primarily to providing resources before large-scale disasters like floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes, and response and recovery assistance after such disasters. However, after September 11 and the concern it engendered about the need to be prepared to prevent, mitigate, and respond to acts of terrorism, the extent of the federal governments financial support for state and local government emergency preparedness and response grew enormously, with about $11 billion in grants distributed from fiscal years 2002 through 2005. At the same time the federal government has been developing guidance and standards for state and local first responders in the areas of incident management and capabilities and tying certain requirements to the award of grants." NOTE: "On March 3, 2006, this testimony was reposted to the Web because of two corrections made to the electronic version. The first correction occurs on page 12, where the word 'not' has been added. The sentence should say, 'The PFO does not direct or replace the incident command system and structure...' The second correction occurs on page 13, where the word 'Performance' has been replaced with the word 'Preparedness' so that 'National Performance Goal' becomes 'National Preparedness Goal.'"
Government Accountability Office (GAO): http://www.gao.gov/