Safeguarding the Nation's Drinking Water: EPA and Congressional Actions [Updated December 18, 2002] [open pdf - 56KB]
"The events of September 11 raised concerns about the security of the nations drinking water supplies and their vulnerability to attack. Issues include the readiness of water utilities to prevent and respond to attacks on water systems, steps that can be taken to improve preparedness and response capabilities, and the availability of resources to help utilities enhance drinking water security. After a presidential commission on critical infrastructure protection identified vulnerabilities in the water sector in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with other federal agencies, water utilities, and state and local governments, began taking steps to improve the security of water systems, although these efforts generally were not targeted to current concerns over terrorism. Pursuant to the 1998 Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 on protecting the nations critical infrastructure, EPA had provided some research, information, and technical and financial assistance to improve preparedness and increase the security of drinking water systems. However, PDD-63 efforts were focused almost entirely on computer security issues. Following September 11, EPA significantly increased and expedited efforts to help utilities safeguard facilities and supplies from terrorist or other threats. The 107th Congress took significant steps to improve security in the water sector."
CRS Report for Congress, RL31294
Open CRS: http://www.opencrs.com/