International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administrations Proposed INA Amendment [Updated December 5, 2005] [open pdf - 40KB]
"The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action. CRS Issue Brief IB93017 discusses the ISS program; CRS Report RS22072 discusses the origins of the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA) and its relationship to the ISS program. Congress passed and the President signed into law (S. 1713, P.L.109-112) a version that is different from the proposal, but allows ISS-related goods and services to be purchased from and delivered by Russia through January 1, 2012."
CRS Report for Congress, RS22270