"Treatment of survivors in the acute aftermath of traumatic events is complex. Survivor's concrete needs may be very urgent, secondary stressors may still be operating, expressions of distress are volatile and highly reactive to external realities, and symptoms expressed may not reflect psychopathology. Normal healing processes are already operating, and significant assistance is provided by natural supporters and healers (e.g., relatives, community leaders) and should not be interfered with. Professional helpers are often enduring significant stress themselves and do not operate in their usual environment. A treatment model, which favors knowledge of pathogenic processes over symptom recognition, is described."