"This background paper is part of OTA's follow-on assistance to the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs after the September 1994 OTA report on information security and privacy. The Committee had requested additional informational and analytical assistance from OTA in order to prepare for hearings and legislation in the 104th Congress (see the letter of request in appendix A). This background paper is a companion and supplement to the 1994 report and is intended to be used in conjunction with it. For the reader's convenience, however, pertinent technical and institutional background material, drawn from that report and updated where possible, is included in this background in appendices B (Federal Information Security and the Computer Security Act), C (U.S. Export Controls on Cryptography), and D (Summary of Issues and Options from the 1994 OTA Report). One purpose of this background paper is to is to update some key issues that OTA had identified in the report, in light of recent developments. Another purpose is to develop further some of OTA's findings and options, particularly as these relate to the effects of government policies on the private sector and to federal-agency operations to safeguard unclassified information. As in the 1994 report, the focus is on safeguarding unclassified information. OTA's follow-on activities were conducted at the unclassified level and project staff did not receive or use any classified information during the course of this work."
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