"This Bulletin describes the nature of modern youth gangs, in particular, hybrid gangs. Hybrid gang culture is characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang, participation in multiple gangs by a single individual, vague rules and codes of conduct for gang members, use of symbols and colors from multiple - even rival - gangs, collaboration by rival gangs in criminal activities, and the merger of smaller gangs into larger ones. Thus, hybrid gang customs are clearly distinguished from the practices of their predecessors. The Bulletin draws on survey data, research findings, and field reports to detail these critical differences, reviewing such issues as gang stereotypes and gang migration in the process."
Institute for Intergovernmental Research: http://www.iir.com
Juvenile Justice Bulletin (December 2001)