This report presents a summary and analysis of literature and legislation addressing hate crime1 in the United States. Our review and analysis responds to the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) request for the identification of significant current issues, evidence of effective practices and innovative responses, and gaps in the law and research regarding hate and bias crime. Recognizing inadequacies in statistical reporting on hate crime and limited research on relevant criminal justice policies and practices, this review is intended to provide the DOJs National Institute of Justice (NIJ) with information to aid in the development of a program of research and evaluation. A systematic review of hundreds of documents and web sites was conducted, including sources describing: (1) federal and state hate crime data collection efforts; (2) research produced by federal and state agencies, advocacy groups and other independent organizations, and scholars; (3) crime prevention and response efforts; (4) law enforcement training; and (5) descriptions and analyses of hate crime law. Given the breadth and volume of documentation on hate crime law, research, and practice, we have focused our discussion on state and federal statutes and major sources of data. Statutes legally define hate crime and thus bound criminal justice practice and provide important parameters for research, and many elements of a major program of research will be dependent upon ongoing state and federal data collection efforts. To supplement our review and analysis we provide brief overviews and references for source materials regarding a number of topics associated with hate crime research and related criminal justice practices.
National Criminal Justice Reference Service: http://www.ncjrs.org/