Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy [Updated July 26, 2005] [open pdf - 285KB]
"Afghanistan's stabilization appears to be gathering strength, about three years after the U.S.-led war that brought the current government to power, but major challenges persist. Successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, and economic reconstruction is proceeding. However, the insurgency led by remnants of the former Taliban regime has become more active in mid-2005, narcotics trafficking is rampant, and independent militias remain throughout the country. The report of the 9/11 Commission recommended a long-term commitment to stabilize Afghanistan. Legislation passed in December 2004 to implement those recommendations (P.L. 108-458) contains several provisions on Afghanistan. [...] U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces. The United States and other countries are building an Afghan National Army; deploying a multinational International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to patrol Kabul and other cities; running regional enclaves to secure reconstruction (Provincial Reconstruction Teams, PRTs); and disarming militia fighters. Approximately 18,000 U.S. troops remain in Afghanistan to combat the Taliban-led insurgency. To build security institutions and assist reconstruction, the United States gave Afghanistan a total of almost $1.8 billion for FY2004, mostly through a supplemental appropriations (P.L. 108-106). An FY2005 supplemental appropriates about $3.35 billion, including funds for Afghan security forces, and another $920 million is requested for the regular FY2006 aid appropriation."
CRS Report for Congress, RL30588