"The Bush Administration has been exploring ways of creating a strategic partnership with India since 2001. Indian officials identified their growing energy needs as an area for cooperation, particularly in nuclear energy. The U.S.-India 2004 Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) initiative included expanded cooperation in civil nuclear technology as one of three goals. Phase I of the NSSP, completed in September 2004, required addressing proliferation concerns and ensuring compliance with U.S. export controls. In September 2004, the Administration published a final ruling stating there was a presumption of approval of licenses for some items that are used in the 'balance of plant' (non-reactor-related end-uses) activities at safeguarded nuclear facilities, and that are not multilaterally controlled for nuclear proliferation reasons. 'Balance of plant' activities, refers 'to the part of a nuclear power plant used for power generation (e.g., turbines, controllers, or power distribution) to distinguish it from the nuclear reactor.' In practice, this means certain dual-use equipment (e.g. machine tools), not controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers Group because they do not meet certain performance criteria, could be exported to the Rajasthan and Tarapur reactors."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33016