"In 1998 and 1999, the United States and its NATO allies attempted to put an end to escalating violence between ethnic Albanian guerrillas and Yugoslav/Serb forces in Yugoslavia's Kosovo province. These efforts culminated in a 78-day NATO bombing campaign (Operation Allied Force) against Serbia from March until June 1999, when then-Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic agreed to withdraw his forces from the province. Since then, Kosovo has been governed by a combination of U.N. and local Kosovar governing structures. The U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), under the terms of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244, retains ultimate political authority in the province. A NATO-led peacekeeping force, KFOR, is charged with providing a secure environment. In May 2001, UNMIK issued a 'Constitutional Framework' for Kosovo that provided for an elected provisional legislature and government with limited powers but did not address Kosovo's final status. Elections for the first Kosovo assembly were held on November 17, 2001, and a Kosovo government was formed in March 2002. New elections held on October 23, 2004, were mostly boycotted by Kosovo's minority Serb population."
CRS Report for Congress, RL31053