"Complex 21st century threats, exemplified by the horrific events of September 11th 2001, demand that all Americans share responsibility for homeland security. All levels of government, the private sector, and non-governmental agencies must be prepared to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from a wide spectrum of major events that exceed the capabilities of any single entity. These hazards require a unified and coordinated national approach to planning and to domestic incident management. To address this need, Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5: Management of Domestic Incidents (HSPD-5) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8: National Preparedness (HSPD-8) establish national initiatives that develop a common approach to preparedness and response. The initiatives are the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the National Response Plan (NRP), and the National Preparedness Goal (the Goal)."