Dual-Use Biological Equipment: Difficulties in Domestic Regulation [Updated January 22, 2004] [open pdf - 40KB]
From the Summary: "Dual-use technologies, technologies with both civilian and military use, are often cited as lowering technical barriers to terrorist development of chemical and biological weapons. Export of these technologies is regulated through both domestic law and international agreement, but domestic sales are not. Dual-use biological equipment, whose military use includes the production of biological weapons, is employed in many different civilian and commercial applications, including academic research and the pharmaceutical, medical, and manufacturing industries. Consequently, regulating such equipment might have a marked economic impact and prove to be infeasible. Possible approaches to controlling this equipment include voluntary self-regulation and use of industry best practices by suppliers, licensing of equipment purchasers, registration of equipment, and application of civil penalties to suppliers for inappropriate end-use of equipment. This report will not be updated."
CRS Report for Congress, RS21422