"In debates on export administration legislation, parties often fall into two camps: those who primarily want to liberalize controls in order to promote exports, and those who are apprehensive that liberalization may compromise national security goals. While it is widely agreed that exports of some goods and technologies can adversely affect U.S. national security and foreign policy, many believe that current export controls are detrimental to U.S. business, that the resultant loss of competitiveness, market share, and jobs can harm the U.S. economy, and that the harm to particular U.S. industries and to the economy itself can negatively impact U.S. security. Controversies arise with regard to the cost to the U.S. economy, the licensing system, foreign availability of controlled items, and unilateral controls as opposed to multilateral regimes. In the last few years, congressional attention has focused on high-performance computers, encryption, stealth technology, precision machine tools, satellites, and aerospace technology. Congress has several options in addressing export administration policy, ranging from approving no new legislation to rewriting the entire Export Administration Act. Among the options presented in this report are: allow the President to continue export controls under emergency authority, restore the EAA 1979 with increased penalties, or, rewrite the Export Administration Act to account for changing national security concerns and a globalized economy."
CRS Report for Congress, RL30169