"Based on 'the National Defense Program Outline in and after FY 1996', Japan is reshaping its defense capability, but it remains committed to four fundamentals: it maintains an exclusively defense-oriented policy, avoids developing military capabilities that might threaten other countries, adheres to non-nuclear principles, and upholds civilian control of the military. The Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security: Alliance for the 21st Century in April 1996 reaffirmed the importance of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements. The declaration addressed bilateral cooperative efforts designed to increase the credibility of the security relationship and the initiation of a review of the 1978 Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. This forum explains why Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) need to develop joint operational expertise and overall intelligence capabilities for dealing with emergency situations. The SDF also needs to use defense diplomacy to help develop a more stable regional security environment."
Strategic Forum (May 1999), no.163
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/