Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons   [open pdf - 2MB]

"In an effort to better understand what actions the energy industry has taken in response to the 2005 and 2008 hurricane seasons, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) conducted research to identify specific industry efforts related to storm hardening and resiliency. The resulting study focuses on the measures that refiners, petroleum product pipeline operators, and electric utilities in the Gulf Coast have taken to harden their assets and make energy supply to the Southeast more resilient. [...] The study is focused on the segments of the energy industry that contribute most to the delivery of gasoline and diesel to the Southeast U.S. Therefore, the focus is on hardening and resiliency efforts undertaken by refiners, pipeline operators, and electric utilities with transmission and distribution (T&D) assets. [...] Hardening refers to physically changing the infrastructure to make it less susceptible to damage from extreme wind, flooding, or flying debris. Hardening improves the durability and stability of energy infrastructure, making it better able to withstand the impacts of hurricanes and weather events without sustaining major damage. Resiliency, by contrast, refers to the ability of an energy facility to recover quickly from damage to any of its components or to any of the external systems on which it depends. Resiliency measures do not prevent damage; rather they enable energy systems to continue operating despite damage and/or promote a rapid return to normal operations when damages/outages do occur. A summary of hardening and resiliency actions reported by petroleum and electricity companies in the Gulf Coast and Southeast regions is included in this report."

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